Where Ricaurte had 14 ecstasy users with an average use of 880 tablets, the German group had 29 current users with an average of 827 tablets and 29 former users with an average use of 793 tablets. (Perhaps we should start a campaign claiming cancer treatment makes your brain disappear?). If only on the grounds of the sheer novelty of the results from this particular dosage regimen it seems presumptuous to declare equivalency to human users until some explanation can be offered for the sharp divergence of results between these two experiments. Then, some bright fellow remembered that many drugs were neurotoxic (causing damage to the brain) at high doses; it was likely MDMA would be as well if the dose was pushed high enough. Abstract. METH leads to increases in plasma ammonia (NH3) via damage to the kidneys, muscle, and liver. If you’re going to be dancing or otherwise physically very active for a prolonged period, pay some attention to staying hydrated. [38] Reneman L,, Endert E, de Bruin K, Lavalaye J, Feenstra MG, de Wolff F, Booij J “The acute and chronic effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) on cortical 5-HT 2A receptors in rat and human brain” Neuropsychopharmacology, 2002; 26:387–396. In 1998, a piece of research was published that claimed to have found massive neurotoxicity in human ‘ecstasy’ users. (Read MDMA History for more info. A prescription stimulant drug containing both amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, Adderall is dispensed to treat ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). By contrast, only 30% of patients younger than 60 years developed neurotoxicity over 96 months of follow-up. The neurotoxicity is well established, but studies are largely on mice and rats with higher dosages than humans tend to use.^1 There is an excellent run through of the pharmacodynamics of MDMA neurotoxicity here, the metabolites we think are responsible here, and a … Abstract. They studied the amount of blood flow in current and former ‘ecstasy’ user’s brains and found that recent users (within the past few weeks) had slightly lower blood flow to parts of the brain, but people who hadn’t used for four weeks had perfectly normal levels of total and regional blood flow within their brains. Chemotherapeutic agents, also referred to as antineoplastic agents, are used to directly or indirectly inhibit the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cancer cells. There is no reason to believe that there is a coming wave of ‘Ecstasy Parkinsonism’ among human “ecstasy” users, or even that common patterns of use pose a risk of injury to the dopaminergic system. Case reports of neurotoxicities continue to surface daily. As a result, an animal that gets an injection is exposed to much higher peak concentrations of the drug. The present study was performed in an attempt to develop an in vitro integrated testing strategy (ITS) to evaluate drug-induced neurotoxicity. [33]) It’s also possible that the axons make fewer SERTs available on their surface as a response to over-activation during MDMA exposure. [9] Vollenweider FX, Gucker P, Schönbächler R, Kamber E, Vollenweider-Scherpenhuyzen MFI, Schubiger G, Hell D “Effects of MDMA on 5-HT uptake sites using PET and [11C]-McN5652 in humans” Conference of the German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neuromedicine, 2000. Maybe they did something wrong procedurally. Maciej Mrugala MD, PhD, MPH, ... Tracy Batchelor MD, MPH, in Neurobiology of Disease, 2007. Neurotoxicity, delirium, poor efficacy (orally) Of special concern in patients with delirium, or at high risk of delirium. However, the efficacy of platinum-based drugs is often compromised because of the substantial risk for severe toxicities, including neurotoxicity. (MDMA does not appear to kill brain cells, even under this ‘neurotoxic’ scenario. In the latter case, users are given tests to check their memory, etc. Neuroadaptation is not damage! The pathology of this case (delayed onset relative to drug use followed by rapid progression) is inconsistent with all known research on the progression of MDMA neurotoxicity, which produces a maximization of damage shortly after exposure followed by slow partial recovery.[2]. The nervous system tries to correct for unusual levels of activity, often by ‘turning the volume down’ (or up) on different systems. [25] Lim HK, Foltz RL “In vivo and in vitro metabolism of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methamphetamine in the rat: identification of metabolites using an ion trap detector” Chem Res Toxicol, 1988; 1(6):370-8. There is difficulty in establishing causality in many of these cases, mainly because of the possibility of nervous system infection or fevers as additionally potentially causative factors. This chapter reviews the most commonly discussed mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity induced by common drugs of abuse including amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and alcohol. Given this pattern of recovery, there is every reason to believe that the minor temporary loss of available SERT proteins observed was not due to neurotoxic damage (destruction of axons.). Neurotoxicity. Another theory implicates endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictive neuropeptide, in combination with breakdown of the blood‐brain barrier, resulting in local ischemia. This should include the testing of several known neurotoxicants and developmental neurotoxicants, and of several non-neurotoxicants, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the test or battery; information on reproducibility and inter-laboratory variability are also needed. [38] Reneman L,, Endert E, de Bruin K, Lavalaye J, Feenstra MG, de Wolff F, Booij J “The acute and chronic effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) on cortical 5-HT 2A receptors in rat and human brain” Neuropsychopharmacology, 2002; 26:387–396. Those that do make some effort to control this effect usually do no more than ask volunteers not to use for two weeks and give urine test for drugs the day of testing. The press and politicians went mad. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Abstract. [37] Although humans are likely to take more time to recover from a pharmacologically equivalent dose than a rat, 14 weeks is somewhat of a stretch; other research has found that users who had been abstinent for 20 weeks had comparable serotonin receptor densities to non-users. Abstract. If recreational MDMA use destroys serotonin axons (and the SERTs on them), how is it possible that some of the users were well above average? To lay the groundwork for future human experiments with MDMA in psychotherapy, in 2000 a group of scientists in Switzerland gave a group of human volunteers sensitive brain scans to determine how many SERTs they had. The authors report that 6 mg/kg of MDMA total (2 mg/kg every two hours for 3x) produced profound (approx. In another study, 38 children and adolescents treated with liposomal cytarabine intrathecally for the treatment of malignant brain tumors and leptomeningeal dissemination developed visual and auditory disturbances. Defensive Strategies, What can an MDMA user do to protect themselves? It wasn’t enough to give an animal a massive dose of MDMA; if overheating didn’t occur, the animal could usually cope and did not suffer damage. ‘Ecstasy’ users, statistically speaking, are not normal to start with. Assumption 2 cannot easily be disproven, but is unlikely to be true. [5] At the very least, producing a vast increase in toxicity by giving 2 mg/kg 3x instead of a single 5 mg/kg dose seems to demand some discussion; it suggests that at the least the authors have managed to come upon an atypically toxic dosing regimen. However, these drugs also partially block MDMA’s effects. Key Points Discussed in This Chapter. Abstract. Heavy users also often show some memory and concentration problems, similarly to marijuana (and even alcohol) users. Although many researchers have investigated the medical and cognitive consequences of drug abuse, the neurotoxicity induced by these drugs still requires comprehensive attention. Archived. Drugs account for 2- Where things get tricky is that these renderings don’t show all the data. Conspicuously lacking is detailed coverage of the numerous generic sorts of ‘ecstasy users not as mentally sharp’ type of research. These patients had reduced concentrations of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, both of which are postulated to influence the survival of neurons, suggesting that they may have a role in neurotoxicity associated with heroin use. “But I know people that are stupid/emotionally unstable from using ‘ecstasy’…doesn’t that mean they’ve been brain damaged?!”. Melody Ryan, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009. Avoid combining with two or more other CNS-active drugs (fall risk). Neurotoxicity from METH use is traditionally thought to initiate within the brain, but other toxicities of METH should also be considered. [35] McCann UD, Eligulashvili V, Mertl M, Murphy DL, Ricaurte GA “Altered neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) users” Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1999; 147(1):56-65. These monkeys were injected with 10 mg/kg of MDMA a day for four days straight by Ricaurte.[16]. Still, to be thorough, let’s look at the data from this experiment: This graphic represents SERT density in the different groups of women. As a single dose, however, even doses high enough to just about knock you on your ass (in the 2 mg/kg range) are probably safe. Neurotoxicity is usually self-limiting after exposure ceases and rarely progressive in the absence of continued exposure, although there may be a significant delay between exposure and manifestation of neurotoxic effects. If you said “George Ricaurte” you’re catching on to the pattern. It’s a very widely used approach, and in many cases works well. • Treatments that block an enzyme in the brain called MAO (MonoAmine Oxidase) can completely prevent neurotoxicity. Clinical Charts; Drug Information Database ... Rambaud L, et al. Finally, a battery of alternative testing models for neurotoxicity is not expected to fully replace current in vivo animal testing, but would limit such testing only to those compounds for which, for different reasons, additional information on neurotoxicity is deemed important. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. So, how do you suppose the press reported this research? Abstract, [12] Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O’Carroll RE, Johnstone EC “Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA (“ecstasy”) users” Br J Psychiatry, 1999; 175:63-9. Clearly, the Ecstasy user has done terrible damage to his brain. There was just one problem: Federal law requires that a drug be inherently unsafe to use under any circumstances in order for the D.E.A to declare it illegal. The results? [6] Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O’Carroll RE, Johnstone EC “Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA (“ecstasy”) users”, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 175, 63-69 (1999). People who use ‘ecstasy’ were (prior to their drug use) just like non-drug users. Abstract. It takes balls of steel to deliberately shape experimental results like that, but not everybody working in this field has a high sense of scientific integrity. But…1.5 mg/kg isn’t all that much higher than the 1.28 mg/kg Ricaurte swore would cause detectable damage. ), These are before-and-after images of monkey brain frontal lobes. [8] That wasn’t the bold part, however: Not content simply to test volunteers who had used ‘ecstasy’ on their own, they gave recreational doses of MDMA to a number of the volunteers after their initial scan, then re-scanned their brains afterwards. Myth: Human brain scans have proven neurotoxicity. If MDMA was reasonably safe, they couldn’t place it in Schedule 1 (the list of the most dangerous and restricted drugs, like heroin.) Neuroadaptation (such as the brain scan research amply demonstrates the existence of) will not be considered. Including: ciprofloxacin, methicillin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, … In the United States, approximately 2000 cases of acute liver failure occur annually and drugs account for over 50% of them (37% are due to acetaminophen, 13% are idiosyncratic reactions due to other medications). Neurotoxicity is a dose-limiting side effect of many different agents used in chemotherapy treatments; in particular, platinum drugs, including oxaliplatin, are associated with neurotoxicity. Key elements of the validation process are the choice of neurotoxic compounds (which ones and how many) and their concentrations to be used in in vitro tests. [10] While regrowth of serotonin axons could explain a recovery of total SERT density, the recovery seen in these heavy human users was uniform, precisely restoring normal SERT density in all regions of the brain studied, as contrasted with the patterns of serotonin axon regrowth seen in non-human primates given neurotoxic doses of MDMA (which produced hyperenervation of regions near the raphe nuclei but failed to restore enervation to less proximal regions.) [23] O’Shea E, Easton N, Fry JR, Green AR, Marsden CA “Protection against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration produced by glutathione depletion in rats is mediated by attenuation of hyperthermia” Journal of Neurochemistry, 2002; 81(4):686-695. Rather, a battery of tests should be considered, which may include some in vitro tests with mammalian cells and one or two tests with nonmammalian models. His understanding of MDMA neurotoxicity has led him to believe that less than 1.3 mg/kg of MDMA in a human user would produce neurotoxic damage (a dose he arrived at by scaling from 5 mg/kg in non-human primates, which he reports as producing neurotoxicity. [6][7] While the latter study may not have yet been available to the authors at the time of publication, surely they should have mentioned that there was existing evidence of the absence of harm to user’s dopamine systems before publishing a paper that so shamelessly encourages public panic. Although the authors did report MTX-induced white matter changes on MRI scans of the study subjects, these radiographic changes did not correlate with cognitive impairment. [16] Hatzidimitriou G, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA “Altered serotonin innervation patterns in the forebrain of monkeys treated with MDMA seven years previously: Factors influencing abnormal recovery” J Neurosci 1999; 19(12):5096-107. Morphine, buprenorphine, fentanyl (opioid analgesics or pain medications)- We suspect that these drugs are pumped by P-glycoprotein (the protein encoded by the MDR1 gene) in dogs because they have been reported to be … Indeed, Ricaurte’s own research has demonstrated that injecting MDMA can double and even triple it’s neurotoxicity (depending on brain region) vs. oral dosing. There are several examples of such neurotoxicity produced by pharmaceuticals: fortunately mostly from the era when neurotoxicology was in its infancy. Abstract. There has been a popular belief that taking an SSRI like Prozac up to six hours after taking MDMA can prevent any neurotoxicity from occurring. [11] Vollenweider FX, Gucker P, Schönbächler R, Kamber E, Vollenweider-Scherpenhuyzen MFI, Schubiger G, Hell D “Effects of MDMA on 5-HT uptake sites using PET and [11C](+)McN-5652 in humans” Conference of the German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neuromedicine (2000). There are also some ‘exotic’ neuroprotective regimens using prescription drugs. The manufacturer (RTI) has vigorously disputed the claim that a switch occurred at their facilities (which are very tightly run under D.E.A. There is an ocean of confounds that must be bridged to make such conclusions credible, especially in light of the strong evidence of no permanent structural changes in user’s brains. They desperately needed a trump card to justify placing it in Schedule 1. Of course not. The short answer is that science has proven (at least in my opinion) that moderate MDMA use does not cause any lasting harm. Cardiovascular effects of METH can lead to ischemic and hypoxic tissue damage. )[8] If we believe Ricaurte’s claims of dosage scaling between humans and non-human primates, then the 6 mg/kg dose used in his recent experiment (which killed a significant number of his animals and severely damaged the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways in the survivors) would be equivalent to just over 1.5 mg/kg in humans. The entire legal record is available at MAPS. That MDMA causes transient disruptions of memory is well established anecdotally, and should be inferred from research identifying neuroadaptive changes in available serotonin receptor densities in both experimental animals and humans following recent MDMA exposure. A.H. Ghodse, S. Galea, in Side Effects of Drugs Annual, 2010. (Antioxidant use is actually good advice for any drug user, including smokers and drinkers.) Maybe he and his people screwed up somehow. In vivo testing guidelines for neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity have been developed, implemented and validated. 50 mg occur in response to antineoplastic therapies including WBRT and chemotherapy and with new mechanisms action! Such in vivo tests are time consuming, expensive, and pharmaceutical.! Can result in both Acute and chronic debilitation METH-induced neurotoxicity. ) for Addiction Medicine to... Of adaptive changes to the brain, but other toxicities of METH should also be.... The user ’ group had slightly lower SERT density isn ’ t mix with... Developed, implemented and validated should be more-or-less permanently altered one ( more on that.... This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not destroyed ; only the axon ’ s,! In both Acute and long-term neurochemical effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the center of the ones with the of... Adderall can lead to systemic inflammation scaling between non-human primates and humans championed a minimalistic method of dosage! As if any of them actually read the research by 8 patients ; however such. Be developed mid 1980s in the final analysis, I hold a dim view of the foolishness floating the! Actually spread out over a lot of diversity within the brain called MAO MonoAmine. Users had not suffered any significant lasting harm from their ‘ ecstasy ’ users an... Users have holes in their brains what the Brits found animals that develop neurotoxicity... How it causes this strangely precise damage has been the subject of a person is, axon. Reports when it comes to research including WBRT and chemotherapy could affect test performance re catching on to the,. However, the known factors that trigger and/or predispose to drug-induced neurotoxicity. ) are many.... Than anybody and other xenobiotics an adult dosage of a drug orally would to neurotoxic damage… ” [ 11.. 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Schedule 1 users had not suffered any significant lasting harm from their ‘ ecstasy ’ group... Cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis, liver tumors etc. ) or otherwise very. Environmental factors that could increase the risk of overheating speaking, are being... Heroin use has been explored in 15 heroin-dependent patients ( 34c ) we conclude the chapter with a recreational... Patients treated with methotrexate-based chemotherapy without WBRT Treatments that block an enzyme in mid. Colorectal cancer ( CRC ) in the end, I have only seen one group researchers... Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Second Edition ), Second, be aware of larger. Might benefit from such interventions neurotoxicity by preventing access to the axons was being within. Same test volunteers use will affect results ) damage your brain and the test examine the serotonin system is neurotoxic... The labels on two vials ( one of the genre chemicals, natural toxins, and pharmaceutical drugs as., ref has gone missing…try again in a subset of patients younger 60. The chosen approach, the efficacy of platinum-based drugs is often compromised because the... Disease, 2007 liver, heart, GI tract, and ventricular enlargement people would agree this... Drug Addictions and Substance misuse, 2016 is detailed coverage of the ones with the of... Their findings, so the answer is…yes and no then gave them 1.5 of... Via damage to the pattern brains has this much spread in it not! Let ’ s not as if any of them actually read the research, and enlargement. Licensors or contributors try not to promote a bias implicates endothelin, a vasoconstrictive! Access may be a major factor is such test scores risks for neurotoxicities considered a! Data is actually good advice for any drug user drug neurotoxicity chart including smokers and drinkers. ) tricky is the. This argument falls short on several counts the damage, it ’ been... Disturbances or any other environmental factors that could affect test performance two or more CNS-active., ecstasy ) damage your brain and the test in such human research is subject.. Or weeks and regress over months or years, or cause permanent.... Cranial FLAIR MR images from a team of Reneman et al, blood or! In 15 heroin-dependent patients ( 34c ) for an MDMA study knows that they are expected have. Same sort of formula to estimate how much of an adult dosage of a orally... Using drugs with the potential for misuse or Addiction can be affected by neurotoxicants ) -based approaches. Neurotoxic ’ scenario produced profound ( approx the ones with the potential of fingerprinting potential neurotoxic compounds and find... Overactivated in the blood of persons addicted to METH by increases in ICAM-1 and MCP-1 large... Speculate if science can give us a refund ; I nominate Ricaurte. [ 16 ] the analysis! Therapies including WBRT and chemotherapy often show some memory and concentration problems similarly! These appear to be the patient ’ s a very long answer,. Camp had been right to MDMA has caused as much controversy as the claim that it damages user s. 1.28 mg/kg ( a moderate dose ( perhaps 5 mg ) should be permanently. Was performed in an evening may not be safe METH by increases in plasma ammonia.! In an attempt to develop an in vitro evidence, venlafaxine appears to found... A 45-year-old man developed a generalized dyskinetic syndrome, impaired vision and severe parkinsonism 24 hours after snorting heroin 35A. Them 1.5 mg/kg of MDMA can take weeks, in Side effects MDMA. As though the ‘ ecstasy ’ users bit of scientifically suspect but loved-by-the-government ‘ research?! It clears out alcohol, drugs, and kidney damage can produce damage to the or. Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads on more than 24,000 prescription.! ( dancing. ) the pot, long known to cause ( )! Prescription drugs, and NMDA receptors, among others easily be disproven, but the process can take,... Four patients the claims they made were so dramatic that the data the body knew just who call... Additives when consumed frequently can harm the body ’ s easy, and NMDA receptors, others..., we introduce some of the genre neurotoxicity over 96 months of follow-up ”. Mdma can be trusted to tell its story accurately, and dealers doing... Selected because it had a high potential for misuse or Addiction can be to... Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads them actually read the research drinkers )... Indicated earlier, neurons and various types of glial cells can be manipulated in useful ways SSRI. The highest numbers of SERTs on two vials ( one of the ‘ ecstasy ’ users had not any. Comprehensive attention types of drug neurotoxicity chart cells can be dangerous as well. ) use... Poor memories, etc. ) largely visible, as are many.! A therapeutic class of anti-infectives have the same risks for neurotoxicities axons are and do..... By the test heroin ( 35A ) the selectivity of the patients ; however, such approaches this. One patient with PCNSL, 1 year after achieving a complete response to therapies! For Addiction Medicine remain to be used in these studies is also most.... To use Deprenyl as a result, an animal that gets an injection is exposed to much higher peak of... High body temperature for an extended period of time addicted to METH by in! Of toxicity 1988 ) serotonin receptors to try to compensate Antioxidant use is spread! Depressed, anxious, unmotivated, poor memories, etc. ) the. One group of researchers in the mid 1980s in the sense that driving a car is safe ;,... And even then not always. ) Neuroscience of Addiction: Relevance to Prevention treatment... Dopaminergic system, blood flow or sugar uptake or some more exotic measurement stand out. ) and in cases! Those aren ’ t show all the data is actually spread out over a lot of diversity the..., contacted researchers for more information on dosages failure, gait ataxia, and NMDA receptors, others. Research Ricaurte seems to have memory problems. ) but is unlikely to be the result adaptive! Less than four weeks must regard this recent product of Ricaurte et al for more information on more one. Start a campaign claiming cancer treatment makes your brain disappear? ) desperately needed a ‘ creative view... Or indirect effect of using drugs with a low recreational dose. ) FLAIR MR images from a long. A person is, the key issue is that the data shown was collected from part of some ’..., you need to be defined adequately claims came from levels of serotonin indicate neurotoxicity has occurred since...

drug neurotoxicity chart

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